Our Children’s Risk of ADHD, Autism and Neurological Problems.
“There are thousands of papers that have accumulated over decades –and are now accumulating at an accelerating pace, as our ability to measure impacts become more sensitive –that document adverse health and neurological impacts…”
“EMF/RFR from wifi and cell towers can exert a disorganizing effect on the ability to learn and remember, and can also be destabilizing to immune and metabolic function.”
-Martha Herbert MD, pediatric neurologist, Harvard Medical School
We parents have seen ADHD, autism and behavioral disorders in children skyrocket over the last decades. Many scientists believe that toxins in the environment is to blame. The brain is rapidly developing during pregnancy and childhood. Small doses of a toxin at an early age can have large effects!
It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver. -Mahatma Gandhi”
Research Shows Wireless Impacts The Brain
Aldad et al., Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice.Scientific Reports, 2012; 2 DOI:
- Mice that were exposed to radiation tended to be more hyperactive and had reduced memory capacity. Authors attributed the behavioral changes to an effect during pregnancy on the development of neurons in the prefrontal cortex region of the brain.
Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Erdal ME, Erdal N, Ay OI, Ay ME, Yilmaz SG, Tasdelen B, Yegin K. Effects Of 2.4 Ghz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Equipment On microRna Expression In Brain Tissue. Int J Radiat Biol. 2015 Mar 16:1-26.
- The significant effects on microRNAs observed in this study were found from Wi-Fi exposure that was well below the legal limit. “We found that miR-106b-5p and miR-107 expression decreased 3.6 and 3.3 times in the exposure group, respectively.
- Therefore, we state that 2.4 GHz RF radiation emitted from wireless equipment may be associated with prognoses of some brain diseases because of the relation between some diseases and alteration in miR-106b-5p and miR-107 expression.”
- CONCLUSION: Long term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNAs expression.
Megha K, Deshmukh PS, Ravi AK, Tripathi AK, Abegaonkar MP, Banerjee BD. Effect of Low-Intensity Microwave Radiation on Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Their Key Regulating Enzymes in Rat Brain. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015 Feb 12.
- The first important finding of our study demonstrated that low-intensity microwave radiation exposure at 900 and 1800 MHz for 30 days induced significant reduction in levels of monoamine neurotransmitters (DA, NE, E and 5-HT) in hippocampus of experimental animals, substantiating that low-intensity microwave radiation might alter synthesis of these neurotransmitters, thereby leading to their reduced levels in brain. Since these biogenic amines play important role in learning and memory functions, the reduction in their levels can be strongly associated with learning and memory disturbances…
- Overall, the results of present study indicate that exposure to low-intensity microwave radiation induces alterations in brain monoamine neurotransmitters (play role in learning and memory functions) at mRNA and protein levels which might be the possible cause of cognitive dysfunction.
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children. Epidemiology. 2008 Jul;19(4):523-9.
- Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry.
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Jun;66(6):524-9.
- The findings of the previous publication were replicated in this separate group of participants demonstrating that cell phone use was associated with behavioural problems at age 7 years in children, and this association was not limited to early users of the technology.
Redmayne, M., Smith, E., & Abramson, M. (2013). The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health, 12(90).
- Tinnitus, feeling down/depressed and sleepiness at school were linked to cell phone use. “To safeguard young people’s well-being, we suggest limiting their use of cellphones and cordless phones to less than 15 minutes daily, and employing a speaker-phone device for longer daily use.”
Megha et al., Microwave Radiation Induced Oxidative Stress, Cognitive Impairment, and Inflammation in Brain of Fischer Rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2012; 50 (12): 889 – 896
- “Significant impairment in cognitive function and induction of oxidative stress in brain tissues of microwave exposed rats were observed, in comparison with sham exposed groups… Results of the present study indicated that increased oxidative stress due to microwave exposure may contribute to cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain.”
Deshmukh et al., Effect of Low Level Microwave Radiation Exposure on Cognitive Function and Oxidative Stress in Rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys.
- “Results showed significant impairment in cognitive function and increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in levels of MDA (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and protein carbonyl (a marker of protein oxidation) and unaltered GSH content in blood. Thus, the study demonstrated that low level MW radiation had significant effect on cognitive function and was also capable of leading to oxidative stress.”
Kesari et al., Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014 Mar;68(2):347-58.
- Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in the brain. Meanwhile, a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in the exposed group. Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiation affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders.
Ayşe İkinci, Ersan Odacı, Mehmet Yıldırım, Haydar Kaya, Metehan Akça, Hatice Hancı, Ali Aslan, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Orhan Baş.The Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a 900 Megahertz Electromagnetic Field on Hippocampus Morphology and Learning Behavior in Rat Pups.NeuroQuantology. 11(4):582-590. December 2013
- Pregnant rats in the EMF group were exposed to 900 MHz EMF on days 13 to 21 of pregnancy, for 1 h a day. Offspring were tested for leaning and memory with the Radial arm maze and passive avoidance tests and then their brain tissue was examined. Our results showed 900 MHz EMF in the prenatal period adversely affected female pups’ learning behavior and also resulted in histopathological changes appearing in the hippocampus.
Chen C, Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells. Sci Rep.May 29, 2014
- “Neurite outgrowth of eNSC differentiated neurons was inhibited after 4 W/kg RF-EMF exposure for 3 days. the mRNA and protein expression of the proneural genes Ngn1 and NeuroD, which are crucial for neurite outgrowth, were decreased after RF-EMF exposure. The expression of their inhibitor Hes1 was upregulated by RF-EMF exposure. These results together suggested that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure impairs neurite outgrowth of eNSCs. More attention should be given to the potential adverse effects of RF-EMF exposure on brain development.”
Naziroğlu M. and Gumral 2009. Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat. Int J Radiat Biol. 85(8): 680-689.
- Rats exposed to 2.45 GHz 60 min/day for 28 days had lower cortex brain vitamin A (p < 0.05), vitamin C (p < 0.01) and vitamin E (p < 0.05) concentrations Chen C, Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells.
NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, Henry Lai, Paper presented at the “Workshop on Possible Biological and Health Effects of RF Electromagnetic Fields”, Mobile Phone and Health Symposium, Oct 25-28, 1998, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Published on www.mapcruzin.com with the permission of the author, Dr. Henry Lai.
Acute exposure to pulsed 2450-MHz microwaves affects water-maze performance of rats., Wang B1, Lai H., Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Jan;21(1):52-6.
- Rats were trained in six sessions to locate a submerged platform in a circular water maze. They were exposed to pulsed 2450-MHz microwaves (pulse width 2 micros, 500 128;pulses/s, average power density 2 mW/cm(2), average whole body specific absorption rate 1.2 W/kg) for 1 h in a circular waveguide system immediately before each training session. One hour after the last training session, they were tested in a probe trial during which the platform was removed and the time spent in the quadrant of the maze in which the platform had been located during the 1-min trial was scored. Three groups of animals, microwave-exposed, sham-exposed, and cage control, were studied. Microwave-exposed rats were slower than sham-exposed and cage control rats in learning to locate the platform. However, there was no significant difference in swim speed among the three groups of animals, indicating that the difference in learning was not due to a change in motor functions or motivation. During the probe trial, microwave-exposed animals spent significantly less time in the quadrant that had contained the platform, and their swim patterns were different from those of the sham-exposed and cage control animals. The latter observation indicates that microwave-exposed rats used a different strategy in learning the location of the platform. These results show that acute exposure to pulsed microwaves caused a deficit in spatial “reference” memory in the rat.
Júnior LC, Guimarães ED, Musso CM, Stabler CT, Garcia RM, Mourão-Júnior CA, Andreazzi AE. Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Neurol Res. 2014 Jan 27:1743132813Y0000000276.
- Frequency of rearing was increased by 193.3%, revealing an increase in exploratory activity of the animals, which is also related to anxiety, depression, and stressful behavior.
Saikhedkar N, Effects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain. Neurol Res. 2014 May
- Thus our findings indicate extensive neurodegeneration on exposure to radio waves. Increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation are indicating extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and cerebral cortex. This extensive neuronal damage results in alterations in behavior related to memory and learning.
Odaci, E., Bas, O., Kaplan, S., 2008. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study. Brain Res. 1238, 224–229.
- Prenatal exposure caused a progressive postnatal decline in the number of granule cells of dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of offspring.
Qiao S, Peng R, Yan H, Gao Y, Wang C, Wang S, Zou Y, Xu X, Zhao L, Dong J, Su Z, Feng X, Wang L, Hu X. Reduction of Phosphorylated Synapsin I (Ser-553) Leads to Spatial Memory Impairment by Attenuating GABA Release after Microwave Exposure in Wistar Rats. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 17;9(4):e95503. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095503. eCollection 2014.
- A decrease in spatial memory performance after non-thermal microwave exposure. “Our experiments on Wistar rats and PC12 cell line suggest that microwave exposure (30 mW/cm2) can induce behavioral and cognitive dysfunction via altered GABAergic transmission. We have shown for the first time that reduced p-Syn I (ser-553) expression plays a critical role in this effect.”
Bas, O., Odaci, E., Mollaoglu, H., Ucok, K., Kaplan, S., 2009a. Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicol. Ind. Health 25, 377–384.
- A significant reduction in the total number of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus, which involves short-term memory and learning. Sixteen-week old rats are comparable to the age of human teenagers.
Bas, O., Odaci, E., Kaplan, S., Acer, N., 2009b. 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects qualitative and quantitative features of hippocampal pyramidal cells in adult rat. Brain Research. 1265, 178–185.
- A statistically significant decrease in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus and an increase in dark cells.
Bin Lv, Zhiye Chen, Tongning Wu, Qing Shao, Duo Yan, Lin Ma, Ke Lu, Yi Xie. The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute electromagnetic fields exposure. Clinical Neurophysiology. Published online 4 September 2013.
- 30 min LTE 4G exposure modulated the spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in brain regions.
Jing J et al, (March 2012) The influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain, Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Mar;31(1):57-66. Epub 2012 Jan 23
- Pregnant rats were exposed to different intensities of microwave radiation from cellular phones. Significant content differences were found in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA) after fetal brains were assayed. “Through this study, we concluded that receiving a certain period of microwave radiation from cellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains.”
Razavinasab M1, Moazzami K, Shabani M. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring.Toxicol Ind Health. 2014 Mar 6.
- “The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats. Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques.”
Volkow ND, Tomasi D, Wang GJ, Vaska P, Fowler JS, Telang F, Alexoff D, Logan J, Wong C. Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. JAMA. 2011 Feb 23;305(8):808-13. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.186.
- A 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna.
Liu Y-x, Tai J-l, Li G-q, Zhang Z-w, Xue J-h, et al. (2012) Exposure to 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA Electromagnetic Fields Affects the Apoptosis of Astrocytes via Caspase-3-Dependent Pathway. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42332. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042332
- “48 h of exposure damaged the mitochondria of astrocytes and induced apoptosis through caspase-3-dependent pathway involving bax and bcl-2. These results are important for properly understanding the mode of action of 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA RF radiation on living organisms, especially in the case of adverse effects. “
Sonmez OF, Odaci E, Bas O, Kaplan S., 2010. Purkinje cell number decreases in the adult female rat cerebellum following exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field.Brain Res. 2010 Oct 14;1356:95-101.
- Long duration exposure to 900 MHz EMF leads to decreases of Purkinje cell numbers in the female rat cerebellum.
Zuo H, Lin T, Wang D, Peng R, Wang S, Gao Y, Xu X, Zhao L, Wang S, Su Z. RKIP Regulates Neural Cell Apoptosis Induced by Exposure to Microwave Radiation Partly Through the MEK/ERK/CREB Pathway. Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Aug 10.
- Differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to continuous microwave radiation at 2.856 GHz for 5 min with average power density of 30 mW/cm2.
- RKIP was downregulated after microwave exposure while the MEK/ERK/CREB signaling pathway was activated excessively. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax decreased, activity of caspase-3 increased, and thus apoptotic DNA fragmentation increased.
- In conclusion, RKIP plays an important role in the neural cell apoptosis induced by microwave radiation, and the regulation of cell apoptosis by RKIP is partly through the MEK/ERK/CREB pathway. This suggests that RKIP may act as a key regulator of neuronal damage caused by microwave radiation.